We continue with Answers, focusing on the first two elements of an Answer--failure-of-proof defenses and affirmative defenses. Prepare FRCP 8(b) and (c), FRCP 12(b), (c), and (f), along with King Vision and Zielinski. Review the first portion of the Kinsman Answer and see the different responses the defense uses. What is the strategy in King Vision when the response is improper? Why was the the defendant's response to ¶ 5 improper in Zielinski?
A court defined an affirmative defense as "allegations or statements of new matter, in opposition to a former pleading which, admitting facts in such former pleading, shows cause why they should not have their ordinary legal effect. Under that standard, evaluate the affirmative defenses in Kinsman. What is necessary to plead an affirmative defense and why? Through what procedures can a defendant raise and get a court to act on an affirmative defense?